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铁线莲属 tiexianlianshu
FOC Vol.6 Year 2001  | Ranunculaceae
29. Clematis Linnaeus
铁线莲属 tie xian lian shu
Authors:Wang Wencai; Bruce Bartholomew

Archiclematis Tamura; Atragene Linnaeus.

Vines woody or herbaceous and perennial, rarely erect shrubs, subshrubs, or perennial herbs. Leaves opposite, rarely fascicled or alternate, simple or compound; leaf or leaflet blades palmately veined. Inflorescences cymose, sometimes solitary, usually pedunculate, 2-bracteate. Flowers bisexual or unisexual. Sepals 4 or 5(--8), petaloid, spreading, ascending, or erect, usually valvate in bud. Petals absent. Stamens numerous, sometimes outer ones sterile and becoming linear or petaloid staminodes; anthers introrse. Carpels numerous, usually pubescent or villous; ovaries 1-ovuled; ovule pendulous. Style elongated after anthesis, rarely slightly or not elongated. Achenes usually ± bilaterally compressed; persistent style usually strongly elongated, plumose.

About 300 species: widespread throughout the world; 147 species (93 endemic) in China.

In the protologue of Clematis zhejiangensis R. J. Wang (J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 7: 28. 1999), the author stated that his new species is related to C. quinquefoliolata . However, because the type specimen is in fruit, without flowers, the systematic position of this species is uncertain at present.

 
Leaves alternate
Leaves opposite, rarely fasciculate.
 
Stamens hairy.
Stamens glabrous; sepals spreading (ascending in C. fruticosa, C. huchouensis, C. nannophylla, and C. pinnata, erect in C. fasciculiflora and C. napaulensis).
 
Sepals spreading
Sepals ascending or erect.
 
Sepals ascending.
Sepals erect
 
Flowers 1(--3), arising with leaves from axillary buds of previous year’s or older branches; petaloid staminodes present.
Flowers in axillary or terminal cymes, or solitary and terminal, arising from leaf axils or apex of current year’s branches; staminodes absent.
 
Leaves 2-ternate.
Leaves ternate, rarely pinnate.
 
Staminodes linear-spatulate, ca. 1/2 as long as sepals
Staminodes (at least outer ones) narrowly lanceolate, nearly as long as sepals, sometimes inner ones linear-spatulate
 
Leaves ternate or pinnate; sepals linear-lanceolate, abaxially velutinous, apex long acuminate
Leaves ternate; sepals oblong, narrowly elliptic, or ovate, abaxially puberulous, apex obtuse or subacute.
 
Branches glabrous; bud scales 1--2 cm; flowers solitary, ca. 3.5 cm in diam.; sepals 1.7--2 cm
Branches sparsely pubescent; bud scales 3--7 mm; flowers 1--3-fasciculate, 4--7 cm in diam.; sepals 3.6--4.5(--5) cm
 
Leaves 1-pinnate or ternate; leaflet blades 3--7.5 cm wide; sepals white or blue; filaments linear
Leaves 1- or 2-pinnate; leaflet blades 0.5--4 cm wide; sepals yellow or tinged with purple; filaments linear-lanceolate.
 
Flowers solitary, terminal, sometimes also in axillary, 1--3-flowered cymes.
Flowers in axillary cymes, not terminal.
 
Shrublets dwarf, erect.
Vines woody.
 
Leaflet blades papery, margin ± densely denticulate; sepals adaxially glabrous
Leaflet blades leathery, margin entire or 1- or 2-denticulate; sepals adaxially puberulous
 
Sepals adaxially glabrous.
Sepals adaxially puberulous.
 
Leaflet blades papery, both surfaces sparsely puberulous, margin densely denticulate; sepals not corniculate at apex abaxially
Leaflet blades leathery, glabrous, margin entire or sometimes 1-denticulate; sepals corniculate at apex abaxially
 
Flowers solitary and terminal only, not in axillary cymes; sepals apically attenuate into a tail-like projection 3--6 mm
Flowers solitary and terminal and also in axillary cymes; sepals apically acute or cuspidate, without a tail-like projection.
 
Leaflet blade margin ± densely dentate or denticulate
Leaflet blade margin entire or 1- or 2-denticulate
 
Sepals adaxially glabrous.
Sepals adaxially puberulous.
 
Leaflet blade margin crenate
Leaflet blade margin entire or 1- or 2-denticulate.
 
Leaflet blades narrowly elliptic, oblong, or narrowly ovate
Leaflet blades lanceolate or linear-lanceolate
 
Leaflet blades gray-green
Leaflet blades green or bluish green.
 
Leaflet blade margin entire or 1- or 2-denticulate
Leaflet blade margin dentate, denticulate, or serrate.
 
Leaflet blades ovate or broadly so, margin irregularly sparsely dentate; bracts ternate
Leaflet blades mainly lanceolate or narrowly ovate, margin densely serrate or denticulate; bracts simple, lanceolate or linear
 
Calyx tubular; stamens sparsely puberulous near apex of filaments; flowers polygamous.
Calyx campanulate; stamens ± densely villous on filaments, sometimes also on anthers, rarely pubescent; flowers bisexual.
 
Flowers solitary, terminal; leave pinnate and 5-foliolate or ternate
Flowers in terminal or axillary, 5- to many-flowered cymes.
 
Leaves 2-ternate or pinnate
Leaves ternate.
 
Leaflet blades adaxially appressed puberulous; peduncles and pedicels densely puberulous; anthers linear, 3.2--5 mm, apex apiculate, apiculus 0.2--0.5 mm
Leaflet blades adaxially glabrous; peduncles and pedicels velutinous; anthers narrowly oblong, ca. 2.8 mm, apex minutely apiculate, apiculus ca. 0.1 mm
 
Flowers 1--3, arising with 2 leaves from axillary buds of previous year’s or older branches.
Flowers usually arising from leaf axils or sometimes apex of current year’s branches.
 
Leaves ternate; sepals yellow
Leaves 2-ternate; sepals reddish purple or dark purple
 
Flowers solitary, axillary, pedicellate only, not pedunculate and 2-bracteate.
Flowers in axillary or terminal, usually pedunculate, 2-bracteate cymes, or solitary and terminal on current year’s branches.
 
Leaflet blades glabrous on both surfaces or sparsely puberulous only abaxially
Leaflet blades appressed puberulous on both surfaces
 
Sepals longitudinally narrowly 2- or 3-winged abaxially.
Sepals not winged abaxially.
 
Branches and leaves glabrous
Branches and leaves ± hairy.
 
Branches erect, velutinous, hairs dense, spreading, short
Branches scandent (sometimes erect in C. ranunculoides), pubescent or puberulous.
 
Leaves simple, pentagonal, and 3-parted, or 1- or 2-ternate or pinnate, when leaflet blades ovate, broadly so, rhombic, or cordate, often 3-lobed, papery, margin usually dentate or denticulate
Leaves ternate; leaflet blades oblong-oblanceolate, narrowly ovate, or narrowly elliptic, undivided, leathery, margin entire, sometimes 1-denticulate
 
Shrublets erect or perennial herbs.
Vines woody or herbaceous.
 
Leaves sessile, simple
Leaves petiolate, compound
 
Leaves simple (sometimes ternate in C. henryi).
Leaves compound.
 
Anthers glabrous, apex obtuse.
Anthers abaxially pubescent, apex usually minutely apiculate.
 
Leaf blade narrowly ovate or lanceolate, margin minutely denticulate
Leaf blade broadly ovate, cordate-ovate, or suborbicular.
 
Leaf blade not reticulate, base rounded-cuneate or truncate, margin dentate
Leaf blade reticulate on both surfaces, base cordate, margin entire
 
Flowers solitary, terminal on current year’s branches, sometimes also in axillary, 1-flowered cymes
Flowers in axillary, 1-flowered cymes only, not terminal.
 
Leaves all simple, papery or subleathery, base broadly cuneate, margin usually entire
Leaves simple or sometimes ternate; leaf or leaflet blades papery, base subcordate, rounded, or broadly cuneate, margin sparsely dentate
 
Leaves 1- or 2-pinnate, 2-ternate, or 2--4-pinnatisect.
Leaves 1-ternate.
 
Leaves 2--4-pinnatisect
Leaves 1- or 2-pinnate or 2-ternate.
 
Leaflet blade margin entire.
Leaflet blade margin dentate.
 
Branches and leaves glabrous; sepals yellow, adaxially puberulous
Branches and leaves sparsely pubescent; sepals purple, adaxially glabrous
 
Petiole bases dilated and connate.
Petiole bases not or only slightly dilated, not connate.
 
Vines woody; connate petiole bases strongly dilated, forming a suborbicular, platelike structure; leaflet blades 3.5--7.5 cm wide; sepals yellowish
Vines herbaceous; connate petiole bases moderately dilated, turgid, not forming a platelike structure; leaflet blades 1.4--3(--4.5) cm wide; sepals purple-red
 
Branches densely pubescent or velutinous.
Branches sparsely puberulous or subglabrous.
 
Leaflet blades abaxially densely (rarely sparsely) pubescent; cymes usually many flowered; sepals abaxially densely appressed puberulous
119  毛木通
Leaflet blades abaxially velutinous; cymes usually 3-flowered; sepals abaxially velutinous
 
Leaves 1-pinnate; sepals purple
Leaves 1- or 2-pinnate; sepals yellow.
 
Leaflet blades lobed; cymes usually many flowered, paniclelike
Leaflet blades parted; cymes few flowered
 
Anthers hairy.
Anther glabrous.
 
Branches densely pubescent; leaflet blades abaxially densely pubescent, adaxially sparsely pubescent, margin dentate; cymes 6- to many flowered
Branches sparsely puberulous or glabrous; leaflet blades glabrous or sparsely puberulous; cymes 1--3-flowered.
 
Sepals abaxially puberulous.
Sepals abaxially glabrous.
 
Leaflet blades lanceolate or narrowly ovate, margin entire or sparsely denticulate, apex attenuate or caudate-acuminate; sepals abaxially densely puberulous
Leaflet blades ovate, margin irregularly dentate, apex acuminate; sepals abaxially sparsely puberulous only at base and apex
 
Petiole bases strongly dilated and connate, forming a disklike structure
Petiole bases only slightly dilated, not forming a disklike structure.
 
Bracts sessile, linear or subulate, 3--10 mm; cymes 1-flowered
Bracts petiolate, lanceolate or elliptic, 1--9 cm; cymes 1--3-flowered
 
Sepals abaxially rusty velutinous
Sepals abaxially not velutinous.
 
Leaflet blades linear-lanceolate
Leaflet blades ovate, elliptic, or broadly lanceolate.
 
Anther apex minutely apiculate, apiculus ca. 0.1 mm
Anther apex not apiculate.
 
Leaflets sessile or very shortly petiolulate; axillary cymes sessile
Leaflets distinctly petiolulate; axillary cymes usually distinctly pedunculate (with short peduncles 2--4 mm in C. qingchengshanica and sometimes C. kockiana and C. urophylla).
 
Sepals glabrous on both surfaces, velutinous only at margin
Sepals ± puberulous abaxially, adaxially, or on both surfaces.
 
Leaflet blades not reticulate.
Leaflet blades finely reticulate.
 
Sepals ca. 2 × as long as stamens
Sepals nearly as long as or slightly longer than stamens.
 
Leaflet blades narrowly ovate, margin regularly denticulate or serrate; pedicels slender, 0.8--1.2 mm in diam., puberulous
Leaflet blades oblong-elliptic, margin minutely 3--5-denticulate; pedicels robust, ca. 2 mm in diam., yellowish velutinous
 
Leaflet blades broadly lanceolate, apex long caudate
113  
Leaflet blades ovate or elliptic, apex acuminate.
 
Leaflet blades abaxially ± densely puberulous
Leaflet blades abaxially glabrous or subglabrous.
 
Axillary cymes 8- to many flowered, peduncle 4--5.5 cm; bracts linear, 4--7 mm
Axillary cymes 1-flowered, peduncle 3--4 mm; bracts linear-triangular, ca. 2 mm
 
Shrublets erect, subshrubs, or perennial herbs.
Vines woody or herbaceous.
 
Sepals 4, yellow, ascending.
Sepals 4--8, white or tinged pinkish, spreading.
 
Leaves ovate, narrowly so, or lanceolate, undivided or variously divided.
Leaves linear, undivided, margin entire (1- or 2-denticulate proximally in C. tomentella).
 
Leaves undivided or lobed
Leaves pinnatipartite or pinnatisect, sometimes pinnatilobed
 
Leaves gray-green, appressed puberulous; flowers in a terminal, pedunculate, 1--3(--7)-flowered, 2-bracteate cyme; sepals 0.9--1.6 × 0.35--0.8 cm, abaxially puberulous
Leaves green; flowers solitary, terminal on short, lateral branchlets, pedicellate only, not pedunculate and 2-bracteate; sepals 1.2--2.6 × 0.5--1.3 cm, abaxially glabrous or sparsely puberulous near apex
 
Leaves pinnatisect or pinnate.
Leaves simple, rarely ternate.
 
Herbs perennial; leaves pinnatisect, leathery, reticulate; sepals (4 or)5 or 6(--8)
Shrublets; leaves pinnate, papery, not reticulate; sepals 4--6
 
Leaves ternate
Leaves simple.
 
Leaf blade cordate-pentagonal, palmately 5-lobed
Leaf blade lanceolate or linear, undivided or pinnatisect.
 
Leaves opposite only, undivided, margin entire; anthers 3.2--5.5 mm
Leaves both opposite and fasciculate, undivided or pinnatisect, margin dentate or entire; anthers 2--3 mm
 
Anther apex conspicuously apiculate, apiculus (0.4--)1 mm or more.
Anther apex not apiculate or minutely apiculate, apiculus ca. 0.1 mm.
 
Leaves simple.
Leaves ternate or pinnate.
 
Leaf blade reticulate on both surfaces; sepals 6, both surfaces velutinous
Leaf blade abaxially slightly reticulate, adaxially with flat veins; sepals 4 or 5, adaxially glabrous.
 
Pedicel rusty puberulous; sepals 4 or 5, purple; staminodes absent
Pedicel glabrous; sepals 4, yellow; staminodes present, linear
 
Leaves ternate.
Leaves pinnate.
 
Leaflet blades leathery; sepals purple; staminodes absent
Leaflet blades papery; sepals white; staminodes present, linear
 
Leaves 1- or 2-pinnate; anther apiculus ca. 0.4 mm
Leaves 1-pinnate; anther apiculus 0.5--2.8 mm.
 
Petiole base not dilated; leaflet blade base usually broadly cuneate; sepals 4, yellow; anther apiculus 2.2--2.8 mm
Petiole base dilated into stipulelike projections; leaflet blade base rounded or subcordate; sepals white or dark purple; anther apiculus 0.5--1 mm.
 
Branches and petiolar stipulelike projections furfuraceous; leaves 7-foliolate; sepals 4, white
Branches and petiolar stipulelike projections not furfuraceous; leaves 5-foliolate; sepals 4--6, dark purple
 
Flowers arising from axillary buds of old branches, base of pedicel or peduncle surrounded by persistent bud scales.
Flowers in axillary or terminal, pedunculate cymes, or pedicellate only and arising from leaf axils or apex of current year’s branches, or solitary and terminal on current year’s branches.
 
Flowers in pedunculate and 2-bracteate or involucrate cymes.
Flowers pedicellate only, peduncles and bracts absent.
 
Flowers in 1-flowered cymes with cupular, 2-lobed involucres; sepals erect
Flowers in often paniclelike, (1 to)many-flowered, 2-bracteate cymes; sepals spreading.
 
Leaves pinnate or ternate, leaflet blades narrowly lanceolate
Leaves ternate, leaflet blades ovate.
 
Bud scales 5--12 mm; leaflet blades reticulate on both surfaces; sepals yellow; anthers 2.5--2.8 mm
Bud scales 8--20 mm; leaflet blades not reticulate; sepals white or pinkish; anthers 3--4.5 mm
58  小木通
 
Sepals 6
Sepals 4.
 
Pedicels 0.5--2.4 cm; sepals erect; achenes lanceolate
15  滑叶藤
Pedicels usually more than 3 cm; sepals spreading; achenes ovate or elliptic.
 
Leaves mostly pinnate.
Leaves ternate.
 
Leaflet blades papery or herbaceous, ± hairy, margin denticulate; sepals obovate or oblong; ovaries glabrous
Leaflet blades thinly leathery, glabrous, margin entire; sepals oblanceolate; ovaries pubescent
 
Terminal leaflet 3-parted.
Terminal leaflet undivided, 3-lobulate, or 3-lobed.
 
Leaflet blades adaxially glabrous; sepals purple-red, obovate or narrowly so, 8--13.5 mm wide; ovaries glabrous
Leaflet blades adaxially puberulous; sepals oblong or obovate-oblong, 4--6 mm wide; ovaries pubescent
 
Sepals adaxially appressed puberulous
Sepals adaxially glabrous.
 
Leaflet blades lanceolate, undivided, margin usually entire, rarely 1- or 2-denticulate
Leaflet blades ovate or narrowly so, undivided, 2- or 3-lobulate or 2- or 3-lobed, margin dentate.
 
Sepals ovate-oblong, abaxially with a very narrow, velutinous strip at margin, apex attenuate and shortly cuspidate
Sepals obovate or narrowly so, abaxially without a velutinous strip at margin, apex rounded or obtuse.
 
Ovaries and achenes glabrous
Ovaries and achenes puberulous.
 
Leaflet blades yellow pubescent
Leaflet blades white puberulous.
 
Leaflet blades 1.8--6 × 1.5--3 cm; pedicels 4--9 cm; sepals 1.5--2.5 × 1--1.4 cm
Leaflet blades 5--12 × 3--5 cm; pedicels 10--16.5 cm; sepals 2.5--3.4 × 1.5--2.5 cm
 
Sepals ascending.
Sepals spreading.
 
Leaflet blades (2.5--)5--12 × (1.5--)3--7.5 cm, margin dentate; axillary cymes 5- to many flowered; style villous
Leaflet blades 1--5 × 0.7--3 cm, margin entire; axillary cymes (1--)3-flowered; style pubescent
 
Flowers 4--16 cm in diam.
Flowers less than 4 cm in diam.
 
Flowers solitary, terminal.
Flowers in axillary, pedunculate, 1(--4)-flowered, 2-bracteate cymes, or pedicellate only, 1 or 2 arising from leaf axils or apex of current year’s branches (if terminal, then not solitary).
 
Leaf or leaflet blades abaxially velutinous or densely puberulous; sepals (5 or)6, purplish
Leaf or leaflet blades abaxially sparsely puberulous on veins; sepals 5--8, white or yellowish white
95  转子莲
 
Filaments rugose
Filaments not rugose.
 
Anthers oblong or narrowly so.
Anthers linear or narrowly so (sometimes narrowly oblong in C. florida); cymes axillary, 1-flowered.
 
Leaflet blade margin dentate or serrate.
Leaflet blade margin entire.
 
Sepals 4; anthers 1--1.5 mm
Sepals 5 or 6(or 7); anthers 2--3 mm.
 
Leaves ternate; axillary cymes 1-flowered, peduncle 3--4 cm, pedicels 1--1.5 cm; sepals 6, linear-lanceolate, abaxially densely covered with hairs 1.6--3 mm
Leaves 1- or 2-pinnate; axillary cymes (1--)3(or 4)-flowered, peduncle 5.5--15 cm, pedicels 3--9.8 cm; sepals 5 or 6(or 7), obovate, abaxially densely covered with hairs ca. 0.3 mm
 
Plants turning black on drying.
Plants not turning black on drying.
 
Leaves ternate, leaflet blades leathery; axillary cymes 1-flowered
Leaves 2-ternate or pinnate, leaflet blades papery; axillary cymes (1--)3--9-flowered
 
Leaflet blades ovate, papery, abaxially densely puberulous
Leaflet blades linear-lanceolate or lanceolate, papery or thinly leathery, both surfaces glabrous
 
Sepals 4.
Sepals 5 or 6 (occasionally 4 in C. longistyla).
 
Leaves ternate; flowers axillary, pedicellate only
Leaves 1- or 2-pinnate, rarely ternate; flowers in axillary, pedunculate, 1(--4)-flowered, 2-bracteate cymes.
 
Bracts lanceolate, 2--2.2 × 0.5--0.6 cm; sepals yellowish white; anthers linear, 2.8--3 mm
Bracts broadly ovate or orbicular-ovate, 2--4 × 1.8--2.8 cm; sepals purple-red; anthers narrowly linear, 6--7.2 mm
 
Style appressed puberulous, not elongated after anthesis
Style villous or spreading pubescent, elongated and ± plumose after anthesis.
 
Style ca. 3.5 mm, pubescent proximally, glabrous distally, after anthesis elongated to ca. 8 mm, spreading pubescent
99  铁线莲
Style 4--7.5 mm, densely villous, after anthesis elongated to 12--30 mm, plumose.
 
Style glabrous above middle
Style densely villous from base to near apex
 
Filaments rugose
Filaments not rugose.
 
Achenes subulate-terete
Achenes ± bilaterally compressed, ovate, elliptic, or lanceolate.
 
Leaves ternate, rarely simple.
Leaves 1- or 2-pinnate or 2-ternate, sometimes distal leaves 1-ternate.
 
Anthers oblong or narrowly so, 0.8--2 mm, apex obtuse, rarely minutely apiculate.
Anthers linear, narrowly oblong, or rarely oblong, 2.5--6.5 mm, apex often minutely apiculate.
 
Sepals adaxially puberulous.
Sepals adaxially glabrous.
 
Leaflet blade margin dentate; axillary cymes 7- to many flowered; anthers 1.5--1.8 mm; style 4--6 mm
18  女萎
Leaflet blade margin entire, rarely sparsely denticulate; axillary cymes 1--3-flowered; anthers 2--2.6 mm; style 7--9 mm
 
Axillary cymes 1-flowered; anther apex minutely apiculate
Axillary cymes 3- to many flowered; anther apex not apiculate.
 
Leaflet blades lanceolate or narrowly ovate
Leaflet blades ovate.
 
Leaflet blade margin denticulate or entire; cymes 3--7-flowered; style ca. 6 mm, pubescent proximally, puberulous near middle, not elongated after anthesis
Leaflet blade margin entire; cymes many flowered; style ca. 5 mm, densely villous, after anthesis strongly elongated to ca. 3.5 cm
 
Leaflet blades abaxially densely puberulous
Leaf or leaflet blades abaxially sparsely puberulous or glabrous.
 
Leaves simple, rarely ternate.
Leaves ternate.
 
Petioles 1.5--2 cm; peduncles 10--18 cm; sepals abaxially glabrous; anthers linear, ca. 4 mm, apex obtuse
Petioles 3--6 cm; peduncles ca. 7 cm; sepals abaxially puberulous; anthers narrowly oblong, 3--3.2 mm, apex minutely apiculate
 
Sepals 2.2--2.6 cm; anthers narrowly oblong, 2.5--3 mm
Sepals 0.8--1.3 cm; anthers linear, rarely narrowly oblong, 3--6.5 mm.
 
Axillary cymes (1--)3--7-flowered.
Axillary cymes paniclelike, many flowered.
 
Axillary cymes 1-flowered, with 1 or 2 pairs of bracteoles
Axillary cymes usually 3--7-flowered, or 1-flowered but then without bracteoles
46  山木通
 
Leaflet blades not reticulate.
Leaflet blades reticulate on both surfaces.
 
Leaflet blades narrowly ovate or broadly lanceolate, to 8.8 × 3.4 cm, thinly papery, apex attenuate or long acuminate; anther apex obtuse, rarely minutely apiculate
Leaflet blades ovate or oblong-ovate, to 14 × 9 cm, subleathery or thickly papery, apex acute or acuminate; anther apex minutely apiculate
 
Branch nodes and base and apex of petioles and peduncles densely furfuraceous, elsewhere glabrous; leaflet blades leathery
Branch nodes, petioles, and peduncles puberulous, not furfuraceous; leaflet blades papery
 
Anthers linear or narrowly oblong, more than 2 mm, apex often minutely apiculate.
Anthers oblong or narrowly so, 1--2 mm, apex obtuse, rarely minutely apiculate.
 
Leaflet blades conspicuously reticulate on both surfaces.
Leaflet blades not reticulate.
 
Petiole base strongly dilated; sepals 5 or 6(or 7); anthers 3.5--4 mm, apex minutely apiculate
Petiole base not dilated; sepals 4(--6); anthers (1.5--)2--3(--3.2) mm, apex obtuse, rarely minutely apiculate.
 
Plants not or occasionally turning black on drying; leaves 1-pinnate, leaflet blades often ovate or narrowly so, to 4.5 cm wide
Plants turning black on drying; leaves 2-pinnate, sometimes 1-pinnate, leaflet blades often oblong or elliptic, to 2.8 cm wide
 
Leaves 2-pinnate or 2-ternate.
Leaves 1-pinnate.
 
Plants not turning black on drying; sepals obovate
Plants turning black on drying; sepals oblong, ovate-oblong, or lanceolate.
 
Sepals 4; anthers narrowly oblong, 2.2--2.5 mm, apex obtuse
Sepals (4 or)5 or 6(or 7); anthers linear, 3.8--4.5 mm, apex minutely apiculate
 
Sepals adaxially densely puberulous
Sepals adaxially glabrous.
 
Leaflet blades abaxially densely puberulous
Leaflet blades abaxially glabrous or sparsely puberulous.
 
Axillary cymes paniclelike, many flowered.
Axillary cymes 1--5(--7)-flowered.
 
Achenes strongly compressed, distinctly marginate; plants not turning black on drying
Achenes not strongly compressed, not marginate; plants turning black on drying
49  威灵仙
 
Leaflet blades linear-lanceolate or lanceolate
Leaflet blades ovate.
 
Leaflet blades papery, sparsely puberulous; sepals 4
49  威灵仙
Leaflet blades subleathery, glabrous; sepals (5 or)6
 
Leaflet blades leathery, both surfaces reticulate.
Leaflet blades papery, rarely thinly leathery, not reticulate.
 
Leaves 1-pinnate
Leaves 2-pinnate
 
Achenes lanceolate or fusiform, apex ± tapering.
Achenes ovate or elliptic, apex acute, not tapering.
 
Leaves pinnate or 1- or 2-ternate, leaflet blade margin dentate
Leaves 1- or 2-pinnate, leaflet blade margin entire, rarely 1-dentate.
 
Leaves 1-pinnate, leaflet blades glabrous or sparsely puberulous only on midvein
Leaves 1- or 2-pinnate; leaflet blades abaxially densely puberulous
32  细木通
 
Leaves usually 2-pinnate or 2-ternate.
Leaves 1-pinnate.
 
Sepals 5 or 6(or 7), obovate
Sepals 4, oblong or narrowly so.
 
Achenes strongly compressed, with conspicuous, winglike margin
Achenes moderately compressed, without winglike margin.
 
Bracteoles subulate, small
Bracteoles ovate, elliptic, or lanceolate, conspicuous.
 
Sepals adaxially sparsely puberulous
Sepals adaxially glabrous.
 
Sepal apex truncate
Sepal apex not truncate.
 
Sepals thinly membranous, apex subacute
Sepals thickly papery, apex rounded or obtuse
 
Leaflet blades linear-lanceolate or lanceolate, glabrous
Leaflet blades ovate or elliptic.
 
Sepals adaxially densely puberulous
Sepals adaxially glabrous (sparsely puberulous in C. grandidentata and C. peterae).
 
Axillary cymes 1-flowered; sepals ovate
Axillary cymes several to many flowered; sepals oblong or narrowly so.
 
Achenes marginate
Achenes not marginate.
 
Achenes 5--8 mm.
Achenes 2--4 mm.
 
Sepals 4(--6), 1.3--2.4 cm
Sepals 4, 0.6--1.3 cm
49  威灵仙
 
Axillary cymes 3--6-flowered; sepals 10--15 mm
Axillary cymes usually many flowered; sepals 6--10 mm.
 
Bracteoles ovate, elliptic, or lanceolate, conspicuous; leaflet blades adaxially densely puberulous
Bracteoles subulate or linear, small, sometimes absent.
 
Leaflet blades 3.5--7 cm wide, adaxially strigose.
Leaflet blades 0.9--4.6 cm wide, adaxially puberulous.
 
Leaflet blade margin sparsely dentate
Leaflet blade margin entire
 
Leaflet blades usually undivided, adaxially sparsely puberulous, base usually rounded, margin often entire or sparsely dentate
Leaflet blades often 3-lobed, adaxially densely puberulous, base usually cordate or subcordate, margin incised dentate or incised denticulate